Eurodollar University: Way Beyond Bank Reserves

The Crash of ’87 was a big deal, though not in the way most people remember. It was a stock market event, obviously, and those are the terms under which it has been understood. That’s not really its legacy, however, as the major shifts that began with Black Monday have had little and most often…


Bank Reserves Appendix; One Additional Case Study

Early last month, Deutsche Bank replaced one CEO pledged to paring back the bank’s ailing franchise with another committed to doing the same thing only more quickly. As I wrote at the time, “Cryan isn’t being ousted because he was wrong, but because he was right.” In comes Christian Sewing whose plans are starting to…


Bank Reserves Part 3; In Practice

There’s one final step to our examination of QE and bank reserves (you’ll need to read through at least Part 1, though Part 2 is worth the time, too). It’s all well and good to try and map out complex subjects using very simple models. That can help illuminate concepts, but we should always strive for…


Bank Reserves Part 2; If QE Was Really QT, Then Why Hasn’t QT Been QE?

Since we’ve already cracked open the accounting, it makes some sense to take our example into an important corollary examination (if you haven’t yet, you’ll need to read through Part 1). In our prior examples, we’ve assumed that the swap of risk-free assets on Bank A’s asset side is a neutral trade. That is, there…


Bank Reserves Part 1; The Great Tease

I completely understand the confusion regarding bank reserves. I really do. It’s easy to believe they are money because that’s what you’ve been taught from Day 1. Not only that, the same message is carelessly reinforced in the media every single time QE or any LSAP is referenced. Bank reserves are the aftermath of money…


The Real Euro Watch

Everyone is now a euro watcher. The European common currency’s exchange value against the dollar has been on the rise, to put it mildly. Despite decades of declaring floating currencies the optimal framework, it really is quite entertaining to watch the furor when these things actually float one way or the other. This recent trend…


Why JPY?

One of the most prominent features of the “rising dollar”, if not the “rising dollar” itself, was an almost out of control shortage in FX basis. Though cross currency basis swaps with Japan received all the attention, with very good reason, the basis was off against the euro, franc, and a host of other majors….


To The Asian ‘Dollar’, And Then What?

The Bretton Woods system was intentionally set up to funnel monetary convertibility through official channels. The primary characteristic of any true gold standard is that any person who wishes can change paper claims into hard money. It was as much true in any one country as between those bound by the same legal framework (property)….


We Need To Define The ‘Shadows’, And All Parts of Them; or, ‘Rising Dollar’ Kills Another Recovery Narrative

JP Morgan’s CEO Jamie Dimon caused a stir yesterday with his 45-page annual letter to shareholders. The phrase that gained him so much widespread attention was, “there is something wrong with the US.” Dimon mentioned secular stagnation and correctly surmised it was the right idea if for the wrong reasons. He then gave his own…



It is more than interesting that Herbert Hoover has become the modern ideal of the liquidationist. In these very trying times, one is either that or a Keynesian, Hoover’s supposed opposite, an interventionist who believes there is no good in any recession or deflation at any time. To “prove” the superior foundations of the latter,…